An integrated circuit is also known as IC , microcircuit , microchip , silicon chip , or chip . It is a miniature electronic circuit that consists of semiconductor devices, as well as passive components. that has been manufactured in the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material.
A hybrid integrated circuit is a miniaturized electronic circuit constructed of individual semiconductor devices, as well as passive components, which have been bonded to a circuit board or substrate.
It became apparent that semiconductor devices could perform functions similar to those of vacuum tubes, so the mid-20th-century technology saw improvements in semiconductor device fabrication. The inclusion of many small transistors into a tiny chip was an great improvement over that of the the manual assembly of circuits which used discrete electronic components. Adoption of standardized Integrated circuits in place of designs using discrete transistors took place because or the capabilities of the integrated circuit, and the building block approach to the circuit design
2 main advantages of Integrated circuits over discrete circuits are cost and performance. Costs are generally low as the chips (along with their components), are printed as a unit by photolithography, so are not constructed one transistor at a time. The performance is high because the components switch extremely quickly and efficiently as they consume little power, as they are small and very close together. Now we see up to 1 million transistors per mm.